Occupational and other risk factors for hand-grip strength: the Honolulu-Asia Aging StudyCharles LE, Burchfiel CM, Fekedulegn D, Kashon ML, Ross GW, Sanderson WT, Petrovitch H
BACKGROUND: In certain occupations, including farm work, workers are exposed to hazardous substances, some of which are known to be toxic to the nervous system and may adversely affect muscle strength. Measurement of hand-grip strength may be useful for detecting neurotoxic exposure. METHODS: The authors studied 3522 participants of the Honolulu Heart Program and the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study to determine whether occupational exposures to pesticides, solvents, and metals assessed at exam I (1965-68) are associated with hand-grip strength at exam IV (1991-93) and change in hand-grip strength over 25 years. Correlation, analysis of variance and covariance, and linear regression were used to evaluate the associations. RESULTS: At exam IV, participants ranged in age from 71-93 years; mean hand-grip strength was 39.6 kg at exam I and 30.3 kg at exam IV. Over 25 years, the decline in hand-grip strength was an average of 8-9 kg for all exposures. Hand-grip strength was inversely associated with age and glucose but directly associated with cognitive function, BMI, and haemoglobin level. No other exposures were associated with hand-grip strength. CONCLUSION: This study did not provide evidence that occupational exposure to pesticides, solvents, and metals adversely affected hand-grip strength in this population, but confirmed other important associations with hand-grip strength.
Occup Environ Med. 2006 Dec;63(12):820-7. Epub 2006 Aug 15. PMID: 16912086
Do coronary heart disease risk factors measured in the elderly have the same predictive roles as in the middle aged comparisons of relative and attributable risksBenfante R, Reed DM, Frank J
Risk factors for the 12-year incidence of definite coronary heart disease (CHD) among 3440 men who were middle-aged (51 to 59 years old) and 1419 men who were elderly (65 to 74 years old) at baseline examination were examined for differences in predictive values in terms of both relative risk and attributable (excess) risk of the highest versus the lowest quartile or appropriate categories. In multivariate models using Cox life-table regression procedures, serum cholesterol level, cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure, and history of treatment for diabetes were significant predictors of incident CHD for both age groups. Alcohol consumption when modeled as drinker versus nondrinker showed a protective effect in both younger and older men. There was no dose relationship, however, among elderly drinkers. While the relative risks for the variables studied were similar between the two age groups, the excess risk was typically between 1.5 to 2.0 times higher for the older than the middle-aged men. In contrast, the detrimental effect of adiposity as measured by body mass index appeared to decline after age 65 for both measures of risk. This may partly be attributed to diminished adiposity overall in the older age group. The implications of these results are that serum cholesterol level, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and possibly alcohol consumption continue to be important predictors for CHD when measured after age 65, and that the public health impact of these risk factors, in terms of excess risk, may be more important in the elderly.
Ann Epidemiol. 1992 May;2(3):273-82. PMID: 134227
Alcohol and hemorrhagic stroke. The Honolulu Heart ProgramDonahue RP, Abbott RD, Reed DM, Yano K
Since 1965, the Honolulu Heart Program has followed up 8,006 men in a prospective study of cardiovascular disease. Of those subjects free of stroke at the time of study entry, 2,916 were classified as nondrinkers of alcohol and 4,962 as drinkers. In 12 years of follow-up, 197 drinkers and 93 nondrinkers experienced a stroke. No significant relationships were noted between alcohol and thromboembolic stroke. When compared with nondrinkers, however, the risk of hemorrhagic stroke more than doubled for light drinkers and nearly tripled for those considered to be heavy drinkers. These findings are statistically significant and independent of hypertensive status and other risk factors. Results further indicate that alcohol has a greater effect on hemorrhagic strokes that are subarachnoid in origin, conferring a threefold to fourfold increased risk for moderate and heavy drinkers compared with nondrinkers.
JAMA. 1986 May 2;255(17):2311-4. PMID: 3959320
Psychosocial processes and cancer incidence among Japanese men in HawaiiJoffres M, Reed DM, Nomura AM
As part of the Honolulu Heart Program studies, 4,581 men of Japanese ancestry living in Hawaii completed a psychosocial questionnaire in 1971. By 1980, 280 new cancer cases had been recorded. Among 12 items related to stressful life situations, there were no consistent associations with total or site-specific cancer incidence. Most of the associations which were found were in the direction opposite to that predicted by the stress hypothesis. Among eight items related to social networks, two were significantly associated with total cancer incidence in multivariate analysis, but one of these associations was in the direction opposite to that of the social support hypothesis. Among the different measures of acculturation, there was a general pattern indicating that ties to traditional Japanese culture and diet were associated with an increased risk of cancer. Cancer incidence was associated with low levels of socioeconomic status. In general, there was little evidence to support the idea that either stressful or supportive life situations were associated with cancer incidence.
Am J Epidemiol. 1985 Apr;121(4):488-500. PMID: 4014140
Coronary heart disease among men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii: The Honolulu Heart StudyKagan A, Rhoads GG, Zeegen PD, Nichaman MZ
The Honolulu Heart Study is one of a trio of studies set up to determine the effects of migration on dietary patterns, on physical and biochemical findings and on disease experience. especially with regard to cardiovascular disease, in groups of Japanese who migrated to Hawaii and California (I). This report will present preliminary findings of the first two years of follow up experience with coronary heart disease in the Honolulu cohort.
Isr J Med Sci. 1971 Dec;7(12):1573-7. PMID: 5144601