Prospective study of the association of serum triglyceride and glucose with colorectal cancerTsushima M, Nomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN
To determine if serum triglyceride and glucose levels are associated with colorectal cancer, a prospective study among 7619 Japanese-American men was conducted. From 1968 to 1998, 376 colon and 124 rectal cancer incident cases were diagnosed. A strong positive association of alcohol intake and pack-years of cigarette smoking with colorectal cancer was observed. Body mass index and heart rate were also positively related to colon, but not to rectal cancer. In contrast, serum triglyceride did not predict the development of either colon or rectal cancer. There was a modest association of serum glucose in the highest quartile group with rectal cancer (relative risk = 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-2.26), but it was not statistically significant. This study did not find a strong positive association of serum triglyceride or glucose with colorectal cancer, but additional studies including other metabolic consequences associated with increased serum triglyceride and glucose may clarify the relationship.
Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Mar;50(3):499-505. PMID: 15810632
Cohort study of tofu intake and prostate cancer: no apparent associationNomura AM, Hankin JH, Lee J, Stemmermann GN
Three case-control studies and one cohort study have suggested that soy products reduce the risk of prostate cancer (1-4), but overall evidence from these epidemiologic studies is still limited. To investigate this issue further, we conducted a cohort study on the association of tofu (soybean curd) intake with prostate cancer among Japanese Americans in Hawaii. The annual mortality rate of prostate cancer among Japanese American men is 11.7 per 100,000, which is lower than the mortality rate of 24.1 per 100,000 among U.S. Whites (5). However, unlike clinical prostate cancer, occult prostate cancer, as determined by step sections of the prostate at autopsy, is as common among the Japanese Americans in Hawaii as among the U.S. Whites (6). This suggests the operation of factors that inhibits the progression of this tumor after induction among Japanese American men.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Dec;13(12):2277-9. PMID: 15598793
Serum vitamins and the subsequent risk of bladder cancerNomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN, Franke AA
PURPOSE: We determined whether serum vitamins are inversely related to bladder cancer risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 9,345 Japanese-American men was examined from 1971 to 1977. At examination a blood specimen was obtained and the serum was frozen. After a surveillance period of more than 20 years 111 tissue confirmed incident cases of bladder cancer were identified. Stored serum and that of 111 age matched controls were tested by high pressure liquid chromatography for certain micronutrients, including lutein, zeaxanthin, anhydrolutein, alpha-cryptoxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, dihydrolycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, total carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta-tocopherol and total tocopherols. RESULTS: Based on quartiles of serum micronutrient levels the ORs for bladder cancer were determined using the general estimating equations approach. There were statistically significant inverse linear trends in risk for alpha-carotene (p <0.01), beta-carotene (p = 0.03), lutein plus zeaxanthin (p = 0.03), beta-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.04) and total carotenoids (p = 0.02). However, after adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking none of the inverse trends remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that cigarette smoking, which is a strong risk factor for bladder cancer, may explain the apparent protective effect of individual and total carotenoids against this common cancer.
J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1146-50. PMID: 14501712
Serum insulin-like growth factor I and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer among Japanese-American menNomura AM, Stemmermann GN, Lee J, Pollak MN
Recent reports suggest that colorectal cancer is positively related to insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and inversely related to insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). To evaluate these associations further and separately for colon and rectal cancer, the authors conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 9,345 Japanese-American men examined in Hawaii in 1971-1977. A total of 177 incident colon cancer cases and 105 incident rectal cancer cases were identified from 1972 to 1996. These patients' stored sera and those of 282 age-matched controls were measured for IGF-I and IGFBP-3. The adjusted mean level of IGF-I was higher in colon cancer cases than in controls (154.7 ng/ml vs. 144.4 ng/ml; p = 0.01). However, the multivariate odds ratio for the highest quartile compared with the lowest was just 1.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 4.3). Adjusted mean IGF-I levels were similar between rectal cancer cases and their controls. For IGFBP-3, adjusted mean levels were lower for both colon and rectal cancer cases than for their matched controls, but the differences were not significant. The IGF-I results weakly support findings from other studies and suggest that there are differences in IGF-I findings between colon and rectal cancer cases. It is possible that IGF-related risk is confounded by other factors that may vary among different cohorts. Further research is needed to clarify these relations.
Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Sep 1;158(5):424-31. PMID: 12936897
Helicobacter pylori CagA seropositivity and gastric carcinoma risk in a Japanese American populationNomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN, Nomura RY, Perez-Perez GI, Blaser MJ
Helicobacter pylori colonization is associated with gastric cancer, but whether and to what extent the risk is greater for strains with the cagA gene than for those without needs to be determined. Between 1967 and 1977, 9963 Japanese American men were recruited and examined. By 1996, incident cases of gastric carcinoma of the distal stomach had been diagnosed in 261 men. Stored serum samples from these case patients and 261 age-matched control subjects were tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori and to the CagA product of H. pylori, using antibody-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Compared with H. pylori-negative, CagA-negative men, H. pylori-positive, CagA-negative men had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.6) for intestinal gastric carcinoma. Men seropositive for both H. pylori and CagA had an OR of 4.1 (95% CI, 2.2-7.7). This suggests that colonization by an H. pylori strain with the cagA gene is associated with a greater risk of intestinal gastric carcinoma.
J Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 15;186(8):1138-44. Epub 2002 Sep 25. PMID: 12355365