Prospective study of the association of serum triglyceride and glucose with colorectal cancerTsushima M, Nomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN
To determine if serum triglyceride and glucose levels are associated with colorectal cancer, a prospective study among 7619 Japanese-American men was conducted. From 1968 to 1998, 376 colon and 124 rectal cancer incident cases were diagnosed. A strong positive association of alcohol intake and pack-years of cigarette smoking with colorectal cancer was observed. Body mass index and heart rate were also positively related to colon, but not to rectal cancer. In contrast, serum triglyceride did not predict the development of either colon or rectal cancer. There was a modest association of serum glucose in the highest quartile group with rectal cancer (relative risk = 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-2.26), but it was not statistically significant. This study did not find a strong positive association of serum triglyceride or glucose with colorectal cancer, but additional studies including other metabolic consequences associated with increased serum triglyceride and glucose may clarify the relationship.
Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Mar;50(3):499-505. PMID: 15810632
Serum insulin-like growth factor I and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer among Japanese-American menNomura AM, Stemmermann GN, Lee J, Pollak MN
Recent reports suggest that colorectal cancer is positively related to insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and inversely related to insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). To evaluate these associations further and separately for colon and rectal cancer, the authors conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 9,345 Japanese-American men examined in Hawaii in 1971-1977. A total of 177 incident colon cancer cases and 105 incident rectal cancer cases were identified from 1972 to 1996. These patients' stored sera and those of 282 age-matched controls were measured for IGF-I and IGFBP-3. The adjusted mean level of IGF-I was higher in colon cancer cases than in controls (154.7 ng/ml vs. 144.4 ng/ml; p = 0.01). However, the multivariate odds ratio for the highest quartile compared with the lowest was just 1.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 4.3). Adjusted mean IGF-I levels were similar between rectal cancer cases and their controls. For IGFBP-3, adjusted mean levels were lower for both colon and rectal cancer cases than for their matched controls, but the differences were not significant. The IGF-I results weakly support findings from other studies and suggest that there are differences in IGF-I findings between colon and rectal cancer cases. It is possible that IGF-related risk is confounded by other factors that may vary among different cohorts. Further research is needed to clarify these relations.
Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Sep 1;158(5):424-31. PMID: 12936897
A prospective study of colon and rectal cancer among Hawaii Japanese menChyou PH, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN
The goals of this study were to assess the association of diet, alcohol, smoking, and other life-style factors with the risk of colon and rectal cancer and to examine the differences in the risk factors associated with each cancer site. Information on diet, alcohol, smoking, and other life-style factors was obtained from 7945 Japanese-American men who were living in Hawaii and examined from 1965 through 1968. After 174,514 person-years of observation, 330 incident cases of colon cancer and 123 incident cases of rectal cancer were diagnosed by histology. The risk of both colon and rectal cancer increased with age, alcohol intake, and pack-years of cigarette smoking. For colon cancer, there was also a direct association with body mass index and heart rate, while an inverse association was observed with serum cholesterol, intake of monounsaturated fatty acid, and percentage of calories from fat. For rectal cancer, the risk decreased with an increase in the intake of carbohydrates as percentage of calories. These findings suggest that some of the risk factors for colon cancer are different from those for rectal cancer.
Annals of Epidemiology. 1996 Jul;6(4):276-82. PMID: 8876837
Adenocarcinoma of the proximal small intestine. A marker for familial and multicentric cancer?Stemmermann GN, Goodman MT, Nomura AM
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the small intestine is uncommon. The Hawaii Tumor Registry (HTR) has identified 49 of these tumors since 1960, and the Japan-Hawaii Cancer Study (JHCS) has identified only four of these tumors among a cohort of 8006 Hawaiian-Japanese men followed up for a period of 22 years. Each of the four men reported by the JHCS had multicentric gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Newly diagnosed cancers are recorded separately by the HTR and JHCS, and linkage is maintained between the two files. Family histories are available from the JHCS, and these are supplemented by a state population file maintained by the Department of Genetics, University of Hawaii. RESULTS: Five men, all Japanese, were found to have carcinoma of the proximal small intestine. Each had multicentric carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Carcinoma of the stomach and colon was found in the primary relatives of each of four men whose families lived in Hawaii. CONCLUSIONS: The familial clustering of uncommon neoplasms (small bowel carcinoma and multicentric large bowel carcinoma), and the concurrence of gastric and colonic carcinoma suggests that these subjects have a genetic trait that increases susceptibility to a broad range of carcinogens.
Cancer. 1992 Dec 15;70(12):2766-71. PMID: 1451053
Serum cholesterol and large bowel cancer: a review of the Hawaii Japanese experienceStemmermann GN, Nomura AM, Chyou PH
The association between serum cholesterol with coronary heart disease (CHD) is well established, but not with large bowel cancer. National death rates of CHD and colon cancer are highly correlated (1,2) and high CHD rates are accompanied by high serum cholesterol levels (3). Japanese migrants to Hawaii have CHD rates midway between the rates of U.S. whites and the rates of indigenous Japanese (4), while their colon cancer rates are three times those of Japan and are somewhat higher than U.S. whites rates (5).
Elsevier Scient Publishers. 1992; 123-26 PMID: None