Prospective study of the association of serum triglyceride and glucose with colorectal cancerTsushima M, Nomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN
To determine if serum triglyceride and glucose levels are associated with colorectal cancer, a prospective study among 7619 Japanese-American men was conducted. From 1968 to 1998, 376 colon and 124 rectal cancer incident cases were diagnosed. A strong positive association of alcohol intake and pack-years of cigarette smoking with colorectal cancer was observed. Body mass index and heart rate were also positively related to colon, but not to rectal cancer. In contrast, serum triglyceride did not predict the development of either colon or rectal cancer. There was a modest association of serum glucose in the highest quartile group with rectal cancer (relative risk = 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-2.26), but it was not statistically significant. This study did not find a strong positive association of serum triglyceride or glucose with colorectal cancer, but additional studies including other metabolic consequences associated with increased serum triglyceride and glucose may clarify the relationship.
Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Mar;50(3):499-505. PMID: 15810632
Serum vitamins and the subsequent risk of bladder cancerNomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN, Franke AA
PURPOSE: We determined whether serum vitamins are inversely related to bladder cancer risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 9,345 Japanese-American men was examined from 1971 to 1977. At examination a blood specimen was obtained and the serum was frozen. After a surveillance period of more than 20 years 111 tissue confirmed incident cases of bladder cancer were identified. Stored serum and that of 111 age matched controls were tested by high pressure liquid chromatography for certain micronutrients, including lutein, zeaxanthin, anhydrolutein, alpha-cryptoxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, dihydrolycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, total carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta-tocopherol and total tocopherols. RESULTS: Based on quartiles of serum micronutrient levels the ORs for bladder cancer were determined using the general estimating equations approach. There were statistically significant inverse linear trends in risk for alpha-carotene (p <0.01), beta-carotene (p = 0.03), lutein plus zeaxanthin (p = 0.03), beta-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.04) and total carotenoids (p = 0.02). However, after adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking none of the inverse trends remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that cigarette smoking, which is a strong risk factor for bladder cancer, may explain the apparent protective effect of individual and total carotenoids against this common cancer.
J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1146-50. PMID: 14501712
A prospective study of colon and rectal cancer among Hawaii Japanese menChyou PH, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN
The goals of this study were to assess the association of diet, alcohol, smoking, and other life-style factors with the risk of colon and rectal cancer and to examine the differences in the risk factors associated with each cancer site. Information on diet, alcohol, smoking, and other life-style factors was obtained from 7945 Japanese-American men who were living in Hawaii and examined from 1965 through 1968. After 174,514 person-years of observation, 330 incident cases of colon cancer and 123 incident cases of rectal cancer were diagnosed by histology. The risk of both colon and rectal cancer increased with age, alcohol intake, and pack-years of cigarette smoking. For colon cancer, there was also a direct association with body mass index and heart rate, while an inverse association was observed with serum cholesterol, intake of monounsaturated fatty acid, and percentage of calories from fat. For rectal cancer, the risk decreased with an increase in the intake of carbohydrates as percentage of calories. These findings suggest that some of the risk factors for colon cancer are different from those for rectal cancer.
Annals of Epidemiology. 1996 Jul;6(4):276-82. PMID: 8876837
Diet, alcohol, smoking and cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract: a prospective study among Hawaii Japanese menChyou PH, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN
A cohort study of upper aerodigestive tract cancer was conducted among 7,995 Japanese-American men who were interviewed and examined from 1965 to 1968. Information was collected about smoking history and alcohol and dietary intake. After 24 years, 92 incident cases with histological confirmation of diagnosis were identified. Current cigarette smokers at time of examination had a 3-fold risk for upper aerodigestive tract cancer compared with never-smokers. A dose-response relationship was present with increasing amount and duration of cigarette use. Consumption of beer, wine, spirits and total alcohol was strongly associated with increased risk. Of 23 food and beverage categories, only candy/jelly/soda pop consumption had a statistically significant inverse trend. Frequent consumption of fruit was also inversely associated with this cancer. In contrast, the risk tended to be positively associated with consumption of rice, seaweed, tofu or tsukudani (a mixed dish of fish, sugar, soy sauce and seaweed), but the dose-response relationship was not statistically significant. For nutrient intake, increased calcium and fat intake decreased the risk for this cancer.
Int J Cancer. 1995 Mar 3;60(5):616-21. PMID: 7860134
A prospective study of diet, smoking, and lower urinary tract cancerChyou PH, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN
The association of diet and smoking with bladder cancer was investigated in a cohort study conducted in Hawaii. The study included 7995 Japanese-American men who were born between 1900 and 1919, and were examined from 1965 to 1968. After 22 years of follow-up, 96 incident cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed. Current cigarette smokers had a 2.9-fold risk of bladder cancer, compared with nonsmokers. A direct dose-response relation was observed, based on pack-years of cigarette smoking. Consumption of fruit was inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer (P = 0.038). The relative risk was 0.6 among subjects who had the most frequent (> or = 5 times/wk) intake of fruits compared to those with the least intake (< or = 1 time/wk). A weaker inverse association with milk intake was also observed (P = 0.07). Frequent consumption of fried vegetables, pickles, or coffee increased the risk of bladder cancer, but none of these foods showed a significant dose-response relationship. There was no association of other selected foods, alcohol, total calories, protein, fat, or carbohydrates with bladder cancer risk.
Annals of Epidemiology. 1993 May;3(3):211-6. PMID: 8275191
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